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This happened on the way home from work and I’m so pleased I thought I’d share.

This isn’t new – many wise pastors, music ministers and the like have said these things before – but I here present it to you in alliterated form!

There are three main things that happen (or should happen) when we sing in church:

Three 'R's of Worship

As you can see, worship is like a triangle. With arrows. And a smiley face.

The important thing is what is going on in the various relationships within the church – between God, ourselves individually, and the whole congregation.

So, when we sing, there are three things going on:

Reveal – God reveals Himself through the songs we sing. This is why it’s so important to have songs true to the Bible and packed with good theology; so that we are teaching our churches, and being taught, who God truly is.

Respond – We respond to God in singing. This is why it’s good to have responsive songs that might not be one-theological-fact-a-line but dwell on what a few things about God mean and allow us to sing with our lips what is going on in our hearts.

Remind – We remind each other of important truths. We aren’t just singing to God individually, but corporately. We are teaching and admonishing each other (as it says in Colossians 3:16), preaching the Gospel to one another, and encouraging each other to keep going in faith.

There it is!

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I’m lacking creativity to write a catchy title for this one. But reading “Epaphras” so many times brings to mind how my friend says it. Epaphras was a friend of the apostle Paul, and you’ll read more about him in my talk. Blondie was writing and giving sermons on Colossians when I was, but instead of saying “Ee-paf-ras” like most normal people, she, in her soft-but-still-northern Yorkshire accent would go “Eeeeeh-paf-ras”, as in “Eeh-by-gum-paf-ras”. We both did a lot of Colossians, and every time I just couldn’t get over the “Eeeh-by-gum”. Sorry Blondie. At least I didn’t tell you while you were doing it.

I’m not gonna lie – this is one of my earliest sermons so it’s probably not my best. But no matter how badly wrapped the message may be, the truth of the Bible is the same. So please try to see past my clunky writing as we dive in…

Bungee jumping is ridiculous. To me, the idea of flinging yourself off a high ledge with nothing but a piece of rope to stop you becoming human porridge on the floor is insane. So much trust goes into that rope, and stories like the one last week don’t fill me with confidence about the sport. I remember last year there was a news story where a woman’s bungee cord failed whilst she was jumping over a crocodile-infested river. Thankfully, she managed to swim out of the river and was ok. But when something as important as the bungee rope fails, the jumper is in serious trouble, to put it mildly.

There are many things that we trust, to varying degrees. We trust the floor beneath our feet to hold us up, we trust our alarm clocks to wake us up in the morning; we rely on our friends and family and trust in their love. We also trust that what we are taught at school and university, and by our parents, is true. There are certain things that we trust which are fundamental to us, and like a failed bungee cord it’s terrifying when it seems like they aren’t true. What are the most important things we trust in? And how can we be confident that they are trustworthy?

I’m going to be talking on Colossians 1:1-8, and I hope that as we explore this passage we will see that we can be confident that the most important thing that we trust in, the Gospel, is true. Let’s have a read of the passage:

Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother,

To the holy and faithful brothers in Christ at Colosse:

Grace and peace to you from God our Father.

We always thank God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, when we pray for you, because we have heard of your faith in Christ Jesus and of the love you have for all the saints – the faith and love that spring from the hope that is stored up for you in heaven and that you have already heard about in the word of truth, the gospel that has come to you. All over the world this gospel is bearing fruit and growing, just as it has been doing among you since the day you heard it and understood God’s grace in all its truth. You learned it from Epaphras, our dear fellow-servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf, and who also told us of your love in the Spirit.

–  Colossians 1:1-8

As we can see from the first two verses, the apostle Paul is writing to the church in Colosse. Colosse was a small city in the Lycus Valley area of what is now Turkey. It was about 120 miles southwest of Ephesus. The church in Colosse began during a period of evangelism linked with Paul’s ministry in Ephesus in 52-55AD, and which is recorded in Acts 19. It was started by a man called Epaphras, who was from Colosse himself, and brought the Gospel back home as Paul’s associate/representative. Paul is writing to the Colossians probably in 60/61AD, during his time in Rome. Epaphras had visited Paul in Rome and told him about the churches in the Lycus valley such as Ephesus and Colosse. He must have mentioned the recent introduction of a false teaching at Colosse which could undermine the Gospel and prove dangerous for the Church. What we will see from the rest of Colossians is that this false teaching basically said that you had to obey certain rules to gain what they called “true knowledge”. To correct this, Paul wrote to the young Colossian church.

His greeting in verses 1-3 is fairly normal for the time; stating the author, the recipient, and a greeting. Paul states his credentials as an apostle (literally meaning “someone sent”) of Jesus, as he does in his other letters. He also mentions Timothy, probably because he was with him at the time. He then addresses the Christians at Colosse as being “holy and faithful brothers in Christ” (v3). He is affirming their faith throughout this first section, encouraging them that they can be confident in the Gospel they know.

After his greeting, Paul goes on to mention his thanks to God for the Colossians. He says that “we always thank God… when we pray for you” (v3). If you notice, he says “when we pray for you.” This implies frequent prayer for the Colossian church – even though he hasn’t met them. When he does pray for them, he thanks God for their faith in Jesus and the love they have for “all the saints” (v4). I’ll come back to this later; but if you notice, both the Colossians’ faith and love for their Christian family come from “the hope that is stored up… in heaven” (v5). This hope is the hope of salvation and right standing with God that they have in Jesus. This is something the Colossians can be confident in, because it is stored up for them in heaven, as Paul says in verse 5. It is kept safe where it cannot be touched by any that would seek to destroy it or take it away. And this is the same hope that we have! We believe that we are saved through faith in Jesus’ death and resurrection for us, and here we see that the inheritance that we will enjoy is safe.

Paul mentions that the Colossians had heard about this hope through the preaching of the Gospel. You see, the problem is not that they haven’t heard the Gospel properly – Paul describes Epaphras as a “faithful minister of Christ” in verse 7, so he would have given them a faithful and true account of how Jesus had saved them – no, the problem is that some dodgy new teaching had crept into the Colossian church. This teaching could have confused them and caused them to doubt whether they were saved at all, because it was saying that you needed more than just faith to receive all the blessings we have in Christ. But Paul is stating here that the Colossians already know the truth, because they have been taught it by Epaphras, and that they can be confident in it. Why? Because the Gospel was spreading around the known world, as Paul says in verse 6, bearing fruit and growing. And it was doing this in their church as well. This is something alive, something growing. Something that is obviously Spirit-empowered as shown by its progress, against all odds at times. Paul is saying, “look, you know this already and it is true.” He is showing them that they are saved, because of what can be seen in them. He is beginning to suggest that the truth which they have already been taught is worth trusting in, and Paul will pick up on this thread throughout the rest of the letter.

So, Paul has described how the Colossians can be confident in what they have been taught already about Jesus and their hope of salvation. And we know that this had a visible effect: Epaphras told Paul about the Colossians’ faith and love, which resulted from their hope. It makes sense that faith follows on from hope – we believe in this hope that we have. But I wonder whether we consider our love for fellow-Christians to come from the hope that we have? I know that I hadn’t really thought about it before studying this passage. Yet the hope stored up for us in heaven, the fact that by trusting in Jesus we are given right standing with God and become His children, should spark a love in us for our fellow brothers and sisters in Christ as well as, faith. We know that we are saved by grace, and we know the imperfect condition of our own hearts. God’s Holy Spirit lives in us, and He empowers us to love others; especially the eclectic bunch of other imperfect people that we now call our spiritual family! And since this love and faith “spring” from our hope, they are a sign that we are saved by God.

We have seen that Paul confirmed that the Colossians could be confident in the Gospel, and that their faith and love came from their hope. He confirms that he can see that they are saved, in preparation for his rebuff of false teaching in the rest of his letter. So, we can be confident in our trust of the same Gospel that we believe in. And we can encourage one another, if, or maybe when, we struggle with assurance – we can encourage our brothers and sisters in Christ, reminding them of the things we have seen in them that show their faith.

Modern medicine has produced lots of incredible things. Not only can we treat many diseases, but we can actually see inside our own bodies. Things like X-rays and MRI scans can show us when things are wrong on the inside, giving remarkable pictures of what’s going on ‘under the bonnet’, so that we can diagnose and treat illness. But these things can only do so much. An X-ray can show you a broken bone, but it won’t be able to treat it. Nobody has ever looked at their MRI scan and been instantly well again! You need surgeons and nurses and doctors and healing time to get better. There’s a difference between diagnosis and treatment. And I hope that as we look at the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20 we’ll see that they were always intended to show us our greatest problem. Like an X-ray, they can’t fix us, but they do show what’s wrong.

So let’s take a look at the passage:

And God spoke all these words:

“I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.

“You shall have no other gods before Me.

“You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate Me, but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love Me and keep My commandments.

“You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses His name.

“Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. Six days you shall labour and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gates. For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but He rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.

“Honour your father and mother, so that you may live long in the land the LORD your God is giving you.

“You shall not murder.

“You shall not commit adultery.

“You shall not steal.

“You shall not give false testimony against your neighbour.

“You shall not covet your neighbour’s house. You shall not covet your neighbour’s wife, or his manservant or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbour.”

Exodus 20:1-17

Context

Israel as a nation was in slavery in Egypt. God freed them from this slavery to lead them into a land that He had promised to their ancestor Abraham. At this point in the book of Exodus, God has just freed Israel from slavery and has led them from Egypt to a place called Mount Sinai in the middle of the desert of the Sinai Peninsula. If you look at the previous chapter, you’ll see that God came to the mountain in a dense cloud so that he could speak to the people of Israel and to Moses their leader. So, the people of Israel are gathered around the bottom of the mountain and God’s manifest presence has descended on the top of the mountain in the form of a cloud with smoke and thunder and an earthquake. And then God speaks the commands we have just read directly to the people. The “Ten Commandments”, as we know them, are right at the beginning of the Old Testament covenant between God and Israel, His people.

So what is this covenant? A covenant is a binding agreement between two people which brings them together in some sort of relationship. The way the Old Testament covenant was given is in a similar form to other covenants around at the time which were treaties between a conquering overlord or ruling state and the conquered people. In these treaties the overlord agreed to benefit the people with his protection and care as long as they obeyed the rules of the treaty.

In a similar way to these treaties, before He gives the rules of the covenant God establishes the giver of the covenant – Himself – and the relationship between Him and the people, as we can see in verse two here: “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.” If you notice, God is putting the covenant entirely in the context of His grace, because He identifies their relationship as Him being the one who saved them from slavery. The rest of the covenant, including other clauses such as rules and punishments, is covered in the rest of Exodus, and in the books of Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

Our passage this afternoon is right at the beginning of the covenant. It is where God establishes how the relationship between Him and His people is going to work. If you notice, the tone of this passage is very much along the lines of “I am your God, and this is how you will live as My people.” These commands were not meant to be restrictive, but to give freedom.

After all that background, let’s have a  look at the commands God gives.

Commands

The commands given here are listed in an order of decreasing importance, from the relationship of people to God, to the relationship of people to each other. God starts by addressing the relationship between His people and Himself. He says “You shall have no other gods before Me.” in verse 3. The worship of God alone is at the heart of this covenant relationship.

God then moves from who His people worship to how they worship, or really how not to worship. He says that they aren’t to make any idols, any visual representations of Him based on anything in the world. And this means that their understanding of who God is can’t be distorted by any picture that they would make of Him. The only thing they have to go on is what He has revealed about Himself to them. And later on in Exodus 34 He revealed Himself to Moses as “… the LORD, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness, maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin.” The reason God gave for not having idols is that He is a jealous God. He is jealous in that anything which is made to rival the glory and honour that He deserves, such as idols, will invoke His passion for His own character and glory.

God’s passion for His glory shows in the next command – don’t misuse God’s name. You see, God’s name is about more than just the word itself. His name carries His reputation; it includes His very Person. God’s name is not to be used lightly!

The command about the Sabbath is about right worship. Later on in Exodus, the Sabbath is described as a sign of the covenant relationship between God and Israel. Therefore, anyone not observing the Sabbath was showing contempt for the covenant, and so the relationship they had with God.

The next set of commands, in verses 12-17, are about right relationships with other people, whether it is by honouring parents, or not murdering, stealing, lying, committing adultery, or jealously wishing you had something that someone else has.

So that’s a quick overview of the Ten Commandments. Let’s now think about what this means for us now.

Continuation

God’s covenant with His people as established in the Old Testament was thousands of years ago, so what does this Old Testament law mean for us today?

Well, since the covenant in the Old Testament was given, the most important thing that has happened is Jesus, God’s Son, coming to earth. He didn’t come to scrap the old covenant, though. In Matthew 5:17-18 He said “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets [that’s the Old Testament covenant]; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfil them. I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.”

 Not only did Jesus support the Old Testament covenant, He also explained it further. At the time, the Pharisees and teachers of the Law were teaching God’s commands, but many only addressed the outward obedience of them. Jesus said that the Old Testament Law was based on the command to “Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.” [Deuteronomy 6, Jesus quotes in Matthew 22] And that isn’t done by just acting out the commands. God’s commands require more than what we do. So, Jesus said that commands like “You shall not murder” were not carried out by merely not killing anyone, but that the kind of sinful anger that causes someone to use bitter words is by nature murder, and breaking that command [see Matthew 5:22]. He also unpacked the command forbidding adultery in a similar way: “… I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.” [Matthew 5:27]. Jesus also described the absolute perfection required by God’s holy standard: “… I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, you will certainly not enter the kingdom of heaven.” [Matthew 5:20].

This is a high standard! The Ten Commandments not only cover what we do, but how we think and feel as well.

I don’t know how you feel at this point. When I was studying this, I was very convicted of my own failure to follow these commands. I know that I have broken all of them! And the fact is that we have not kept these commands. We are unholy people, unable to stick to God’s high standard.

Yet the sense of hopelessness that we get from taking a long, hard look at ourselves compared to God’s standard is exactly what the Old Testament Law is there for. Romans 3:20 says that nobody will be declared righteous by the Law, because we have all sinned and fallen short of God’s standard. There is no way in which we can perfectly keep the Law, because the Law is there to show us our own sin. It is a diagnosis of sin, not a treatment. And the diagnosis is grim.

We have a problem more persistent than cancer and deadlier than HIV. So if sin is our disease, how can we be cured? This is where the most incredible piece of theology we know comes in – you see, Jesus fulfilled the Law, meeting its perfect standard. He took upon Himself the punishment that we deserve for our lawlessness, and died the death that we should have. God declared Jesus righteous, and brought Him back to life. So, God’s Commands were kept by Jesus, and He took our punishment for us. Not only did He do this, but Jesus gave us His righteousness – His perfect record! The Law is there to lead us to Jesus, so that we trust in Him to give us His perfect record, and so get His righteousness by faith. So when God sees us, He does not see our own failed attempt at keeping His commands. Instead He looks through Christ and it looks like we’ve kept the Law perfectly.

Change

This is GREAT news! It means that although the old rules still stand, we don’t have to be able to obey the Ten Commandments in order to have a right relationship with God. It’s ok when we do wrong; failing to meet God’s standard doesn’t mean that we can’t know Him. All we need to do is believe in Jesus and trust Him, and then He gives us His clean record as our own. This is a great and wonderful thing! God doesn’t count our dirty records against us. We no longer have to listen to the temptation to despair because of our imperfection, because we know that God looks at us and sees Jesus’ righteousness.

This doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t obey God, though. In fact, what God has done for us in setting us free from our own imperfect record should make us want to follow His ways as a response. These commands still paint a picture of what it looks like to be God’s people, and so we should still follow them. But we don’t have to return to our hopelessness when we do go wrong, because we know that God will forgive us. We shouldn’t try to rely on our own record to be right with God, because we know that there’s no way in which we meet God’s standard. So instead, we need to rely on God Himself and His promise of righteousness by trusting in Him.

We need to change. Can you see it? We can’t possibly be good enough ourselves. We need Jesus; we need to trust in His saving work, we need to come to Him and ask for our salvation by His perfect record replacing ours. We need to come to Him on our knees, knowing full well that not just our actions but our very hearts need to change – and a great promise that God gives us is that He will give us His Holy Spirit to empower us to do right and to change our broken nature.

So we’ve seen the beginning of God’s covenant with His people Israel in the Old Testament. We’ve seen that God set an outline for how His people should behave, and also how we fall hopelessly short of His high standards. The Ten Commandments were supposed to show us our sinfulness, like an X-ray shows a broken bone, so that we look to God’s way of saving us from our sin. And that salvation is found in Jesus, the Saviour that God promised for thousands of years throughout the Old Testament; the Son of God, who lived as one of us and fulfilled the Law that we could never completely follow ourselves. He took our punishment, and has given His own righteousness to those who put their trust in Him. How incredible! How magnificent is this display of God’s grace and love; granting us mercy whilst fulfilling His justice! And we should worship God with all we are because He has saved us, humbling ourselves and relying fully on our amazing Saviour for all we need.

In reply to my last post, I had this question:

“I don’t have any problem with christianity and evolution from the POV of what the first three chapters of genesis say, but…. doesn’t evolution necessitate that God actively chose to create us through a competitive process whereby the strong live and conquer, and the weak die and are destroyed – isn’t that fundamentally contrary to Christian ethics and the God we meet in the Bible? Why would God choose to create in that way?” – TheologyJohn

That’s quite a poser! But before I can start to answer that, let’s have a look at evolution. It’s an interesting process, because it works on lots of levels – from the whole organism right down to the DNA itself. Evolution itself is more about the overall process of change in characteristics inherited from the parent(s), and is driven by various things (pressures that kind of define what is successful in the environment the living thing is in) to go in a certain direction. So water puts pressure on living things to either a) be happy with just floating around (if you’re veery tiny, like bacteria), b) swim around to get air/food/anywhere, or c) “breathe” under water.

But biology is beautifully complicated and detailed, and the important things in this are the smallest of all – DNA and genes.

DNA is a molecule that all living things have (and viruses too – but the scientists aren’t quite sure as to whether they are alive or just… undead), and is made up of two strands that hold together and twist around like this:

The backbone of each strand is made up of sugar and phosphate molecules (if you want more detail, you’ll have to look it up) and sticking out from the backbone are DNA bases. They pair up by things called hydrogen bonds, which work a bit like molecular magnets.

There are four bases that our DNA has: Adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). As the pretty picture shows, adenine and thymine stick together, and cytosine and guanine stick together. The A will only stick to a T, and vice versa, and the same goes for C and G because of the number of hydrogen bonds that they can make (A&T make two, C&G make three).

Genes are regions of double-stranded (i.e. like the picture) DNA that encode proteins. Proteins are made up of lots of units called amino acids, and each amino acid is coded by three DNA bases. So the amino acid methionine is coded for by an A-T-G sequence. Basically, enzymes unzip the DNA so that one strand is exposed, and copy the DNA into a form that can be recognised by the enzyme that reads the copy and sticks amino acids together to make proteins.

It’s a pretty cool system. You know how much computers can do? They just run on binary code – two “letters”, 0 and 1. But living things run on a code with four letters, and this means that you can get things that swim, fly, glow in the dark, and make tea (a very important skill, I feel)! There’s so many combinations of the four bases that there are more triplet codes than amino acids, so each amino acid is coded for by three or four codes. Add to this the number of amino acids that our cells can use, and you have big numbers of biological potential!

Back to evolution. As I’ve mentioned, evolution works through change. Our DNA doesn’t stay the same all the time – there’s lots of stuff around that can damage it, and our own cells can make mistakes when copying and repairing it. So soon enough the base sequence of the DNA will change. Thankfully, we’ve got some awesome proteins in our cells that can fix almost all dodgy DNA. But every so often, a change doesn’t get fixed before it’s copied to make new DNA, and is part of the new DNA forever. This is a mutation. Sadly, mutations don’t mean that we can get new super-human powers or turn into human lizards or whatever. Sorry, superhero fans. But they can affect the proteins that are made from them. Having a different amino acid in a protein can change its shape, or whether or not it can do the job it’s meant to do, or not affect anything – remember I said that every amino acid has a few codes? It’s a good failsafe against problematic mutations.

So these mutations change proteins, which can change what the proteins do. They could change how a protein looks, giving a different colour of hair; or how it functions, giving some form of intolerance. Basically, proteins do pretty much everything.

The important thing in survival genetics is passing on your DNA to the next generation. Don’t ask me why, it’s just the way it is. DNA can’t think, it doesn’t want anything, but for some reason the main purpose of living things is to pass their genetic information on (or so I’m told). So living things reproduce a lot!

Back to the big picture. In an environment (let’s say my back garden) there are lots of things going on. The air will be a certain temperature, it will be sunny in different places, and there could well be things that eat you (especially the neighbour’s cat). You’ll have to search for food. You’ll have to sleep somewhere. All of these things put pressure on things living in the environment – called selection pressure because they select for different characteristics. Being under the apple tree selects for things that can live in the shade. Being slimy and hungry for the home-grown peas selects for things that can hide from my slug-killing mum. And so on. In the case of the slugs, the pressures on them will select for mutations that mean that somehow they can survive the slug holocaust that happens after a rainy spell.

That’s only half of the story, though. Natural selection – pressure from the environment and competition to survive with other living things – only accounts for the survival part of the story. Reproduction is also really important. With living things that don’t have sex, reproduction is pretty easy. Most of the time, it’s just growing and dividing like bacteria, so new characteristics that come from mutations are passed down the generations fairly simply. Characteristics that don’t work get killed off with the bacteria that fail at life because of them. But for living things that do have sex, it gets more complicated. After all, someone else has to want to reproduce with you. So besides the fairly logical “survival of the fittest” there’s the “survival of the hottest”.  This means that you can get some random things developing, like long tails, or bright feathers, or weird courting rituals, just because the opposite sex like it. The theory goes that these things must show something about the individual that is good for survival, like “I’m so awesome that I can put energy into PRETTY COLOURS!!!” Of course you’d want the Awesome Gene for your offspring because it makes them better at surviving, which means your genes will live on. Granted, you do have to share gene-space with your mate’s genes in your offspring, but combining can be a good thing. It can get rid of dodgy genes, and create more diversity.

So there’s natural and sexual selection, which are both part of evolution. It is a bit brutal, because it’s all about death and dog-eat-dog survival.

Why would God choose to create like this?

To be honest, I don’t know for sure. Death is a fundamental part of evolution, and if God created by evolution, we have an inconsistency with the Genesis account where death didn’t happen until after Adam and Eve (the first humans, according to the Bible) made a big booboo by eating that fruit. So we’ve got a problem there. Personally, I’m ok for this to be a grey area. I know that God created the world and that the Bible is true. I also know that evolution is a pretty sound theory – it underpins pretty much all of our understanding of living things, and it works. The details between the theology and science are tricky, because we simply weren’t there so we can’t know for sure, but what could (I stress could; I’m no expert) have happened is that death was there, but it’s spiritual death that Adam and Eve introduced.

However, to create a process that not only makes new versions of things, but continually does so, while adapting to all changes and pressures around, is pretty clever. I think it’s incredibly creative.

There’s a paper by R.J. Berry and published free online by the Faraday Institute that talks about evolution, and it’s well worth a look: (http://www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk/faraday/resources/faraday%20papers/Faraday%20Paper%2012%20Berry_EN.pdf). Seriously, go and read it, it’s only four pages long. On p.3 it mentions that even Darwin had a problem with the brutal nature of evolution. Unfortunately, there’s not much to reconcile the ideas of brutal evolution and a loving, compassionate God in the paper. BUT it does say that there is a value to pain and suffering – pain is a good protective mechanism, and tells us when something is wrong, and suffering helps to mature us (Proverbs 23:13; Romans 5:3; Hebrews 5:8). Also, it is through Jesus’ suffering and death that we have a way of escaping suffering in hell, and what Jesus did on the cross affects the natural world as well as our human world – we have hope of everything being renewed in heaven.

It pains me not to give a conclusive answer, but I hope that’s helped!


I relied heavily on my first year genetics notes for this, so thanks to the lecturers! And credit to the Faraday Institute for the insights from their paper as well. Go and look them up, they’ve published some fascinating papers on science and religion (Christianity in particular) that are very faithful to both the science and religious thought.

I wonder whether you’ve been in a situation where keeping going has been made easier by someone else helping you? When I was at school I used to do cross-country running. I’m not the fittest person in the world – my sprint is about the same speed as most people’s jog, so every week I would be swiftly left behind by the rest of the pack. At this point, it would have been very easy to give up and walk back to school, especially since it was only about 20 yards away, and if I were left on my own I probably would have thrown in the towel. But the PE teacher in charge stayed at the back with me. They encouraged me when I flagged and pushed me harder when I needed it; and because I had help, I managed to finish every week. It was because I knew that my teacher would help me round the course that I was able to persevere.

 Today we’re going to look at Colossians 1:15-23, and why it is that who Jesus is means that we can keep going in faith. Like my cross-county teacher at school who enabled me to finish my race, Jesus Christ enables us to persevere in our spiritual race. Let’s read:

He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by Him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by Him and for Him. He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together. And He is the head of the body, the Church; He is the beginning and firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything He might have the supremacy. For God was pleased to have all His fullness dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile to Himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through His blood, shed on the cross.

Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in our minds because of your evil behaviour. But now He has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in His sight, without blemish and free from accusation – if you continue in your faith, established and firm, not moved from the hope held out in the Gospel. This is the Gospel that you heard and that has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, have become a servant.

Paul is talking about three aspects of who our Saviour is: that Jesus Christ is supreme as Lord of all, that He is supreme as our Saviour, and that because of His supremacy we can continue in faith.

Verse 15 says that “He is the image of the invisible God”. In Jesus, the invisible God is revealed, because Jesus is exactly like the Father in every way. In verses 16 to 17 Paul describes how Christ is the creator and sustainer of everything. “By Him all things were created” (v16). Paul leaves nothing out here. He mentions things on heaven and on earth, things we can and can’t see, and any form of authority we know of. Not only is this true, but Jesus also sustains everything. From the smallest atom to the vast expanse of the cosmos, the laws of science, the power of reason, the very breath in our lungs and beat of our hearts is all sustained by Him! And since our God can sustain the entire universe, how much more can He sustain us in our perseverance!

Just as Christ is Lord of this world, He is Lord of the next. As Paul says in verse 18, “He is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything He might have the supremacy.” Jesus was the first to be raised from the dead, beginning a new creation that is acceptable to God because they are in Christ. If you notice, there is a parallel between what Paul says here in verse 18 and what he says in verse 15: Jesus is the firstborn of this world and heaven, “so that in everything He might have the supremacy”. And in confirmation of Christ’s supremacy as our Saviour, Paul says in verses 19 and 20 that God’s fullness lived in Christ – meaning that Jesus is truly God. His act on the cross reconciled everything to Himself by providing a just way of forgiving sin. Can you see what this means? God, the Authority over all authority, the sustainer of the universe Himself, saved us! He is the one who guarantees our salvation, and He is the one who will get us into heaven.

So, how does this mean that we can persevere in faith? Because our salvation is secure. Look at verse 21; can you see how bad our situation before salvation was? “Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your sinful behaviour.” We were alienated from God, this supreme creator and sustainer of everything, the most important person in the universe. How insolent it was of us to reject the holy God in our sin! How great His anger against us was! And this is how we would stand before Him now, but for the most profound act in history. Verse 22 says: “But now He has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in His sight, without blemish and free from accusation”. Jesus, God Himself, died on the cross for our sake –God Himself, the One whom we had offended, made a way for us to be acceptable to Him. And not borderline acceptable, either, but “holy in His sight”. What a turn-around! The complete, unshakeable salvation brought about by the incredible, Sovereign God Himself is the same salvation that we have. We are reconciled with God, because God Himself has reconciled us. We can keep going through all seasons of life, because how God sees us will not change, and the bad times won’t destroy our heavenly inheritance. It’s easy to remember how great it is to be Christians when life is easy, but life isn’t always a bed of roses. Health fails, friends come and go, and long-running passion can fade. Yet this we can always take heart from: Nothing that we go through in our lives will change our salvation – when life is rough, we know our Saviour stands alongside us; when we’re weary, we have reason to keep going; when we’re having an awful day and think God would be ashamed to call us His own, He loves us still!

So then, we should persevere because Jesus is supreme and our salvation is secure because of it. Christ is supreme! He is God, everything was made by Him, and He sustains everything. God used Him to reconcile the world’s broken relationship with Himself. Our salvation is rock solid because it was done by God Himself! THEREFORE we should persevere, because our prize is sure, and our God is with us, the God who cannot be beaten. Like me in my cross-country running, if reaching our final destination depended on ourselves, we would be tempted to give up because we cannot get ourselves there. But we can persevere because we have Christ with us, bringing us through life and promising our final reward in heaven. Christ, the maker of the whole universe, is running alongside us. We know that it’ll be OK in the end and He will bring us through.

This is, my friends, what I feel may be described as an EPIC. WIN.

NB – these write-ups aren’t always exactly how the original sermons were. They’ve been tweaked a leetle bit to make them more readable online.

Now here is a beautiful truth.

But before I get to it, we’ll need a bit of background. During the recent Relay conference that I went to, we had a series of talks on 1 Corinthians 12-14, about the Church reflecting who God is. Now, the Corinthian church was big on “spiritual” stuff – they were very spiritually gifted (1 Corinthians 1:7), and things like speaking in tongues and prophecy might have been a regular occurrence with them. They might have looked super-holy, but theirs was a church with all kinds of issues. They had a kind of snobbery going on, taking sides depending on who their favourite preacher was (1 Corinthians 3). They had issues with taking each other to court (chapter 6), and they thought that they were very spiritual. But Paul wrote to them saying that, actually, for all their gifts they were not spiritual, because they weren’t showing who God is. Chapters 12-14 talk about what true spirituality is – showing God, specifically through love.

So in chapter 13, Paul famously writes:

Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres.

(1 Corinthians 13:4-7)

This is something we often hear read at weddings. We think “aw, isn’t that nice?” because it’s talking about love. And, in a way, rightly so – because love like this is a great thing! But Paul didn’t write this to be all fluffy and cuddly. Actually, he was writing this as a correction; because this is exactly what the Corinthians weren’t doing. He’s making the point that all these spiritual gifts that the Corinthians were enjoying were pointless if they weren’t showing love to each other, and so showing God’s love. In a Hubbard paraphrase:

Love is patient, love is kind; and you are not. Love does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud; but you are, Corinthians. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Can you say this about yourselves? Love does not delight in evil, but rejoices with the truth. Do you? It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres.”

And also – love won’t disappear. (keep going, we’re getting closer to the point now!) Paul continues:

Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part, but when perfection comes, the imperfect disappears… Now we see but a poor reflection; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known.

(1 Corinthians 13:8-10, 12)

Paul is saying that, eventually, gifts like prophecy and speaking in tongues and the like will disappear because in heaven we won’t need them. The Greek word that’s been translated as “perfection” here is το τελειον – to teleion, meaning “the perfect”, or, more literally, “the place it was meant to flourish”. Heaven is the place that we were made to flourish! It’s literally what we’re made for – when we will be in our element, where we will be happiest, where we will have what we’re born for. And here is what we’re made for: seeing God face to face. This isn’t like standing in the same room as someone (as much as we would call that a face-to-face meeting), but in the Bible “face to face” is the language of intimacy, carrying a meaning of having your faces filled up with each other. We are made to know God intimately. We are made for it!

So, although we know God “in part” now, when we will be in heaven we’ll know Him as intimately as He knows us. And the most precious thing about this is that it wasn’t easy to make this happen. We don’t deserve to go to heaven, because we aren’t perfect. But God made a way for us to become perfect. Since before time began, Jesus (God the Son) has had a perfect face-to-face relationship with His Father, but He was willing to lose this by being punished as we should be so that we could have it!

The Hubbard paraphrase:

Love. Never. Fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part, but when perfection comes, the imperfect such as these disappears. Think of it like this: when I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways, such as how you are acting, behind me. Now – in our prophecies and speaking in tongues and knowledge – we see but a poor reflection; then, in heaven, we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known by God now.”

 

Even better

Even better than this, though, is thinking about just who it is that we’ll have an intimate relationship with. Because, let’s be honest, heaven wouldn’t be all that great if God was a bit disappointing. It’s all very well to have an all-powerful nice person with a beard to spend eternity with, but surely it would stop being exciting eventually. There’s only so many times you can make a square circle or the sun glow purple or have wings and play your golden harp on a fluffy white cloud (whilst wearing a bed sheet) before it gets a bit samey. So is God all that great a prize? Is spending forever with Jesus an exciting idea, or will He just get annoying after a few thousand years of being holy?

The book of Revelation at the end of the Bible is brilliant. At first glance, it can seem like LOST on steroids – a load of crazy supernatural stuff with an unbelievable plot – but when you understand that lots of the language used is symbolic and represents a deeper reality than at face value, you begin to see just how awesome its content is. And the picture that we get of Jesus in Revelation is incredible!

In Revelation 1:12-18 it says:

… I saw seven golden lampstands, and among the lampstands was someone ‘like a son of man’, dressed in a robe reaching down to his feet and with a golden sash round his chest. His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and his eyes were like blazing fire. His feet were like bronze glowing in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of rushing waters. In his right hand he held seven stars, and out of his mouth came a sharp double-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining in all its brilliance. When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. Then he placed his right hand on me and said: “… ‘Do not be afraid. I am the First and the Last. I am the Living One; I was dead, and behold I am alive for ever and ever! And I hold the keys of death and Hades.

This is describing Jesus in the midst of His Church (the lampstands represent the churches that Revelation was written to) with epic imagery – dressed as a king and priest, wise and with authority (that’s what the white hair bit means), with eyes of fire, skin glowing with His glory, and a voice as powerful as the sea. He holds the Church in His care (the stars, like the lampstands earlier, represent the churches that John was writing to) and His words are penetrating. Jesus Himself says that He is the Beginning and End of everything; that He has defeated death and holds ultimate power over it.

Revelation 4 (sorry, it’s too long to put here) describes God as breathtakingly beautiful, and that He is a life-giver. Chapter 5 describes Jesus as being the only person who can wield history and the loving sovereign power of God. And He uses His power for those He loves:

Never again will they hunger; never again will they thirst. The sun will not beat upon them, nor any scorching heat. For the Lamb at the centre of the throne will be their shepherd; he will lead them to springs of living water. And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.

(Revelation 7:16-17)

He uses His power to get rid of evil so that He can bless His people, the Church! Jesus Christ is self-giving, and the nature of His power is self-giving: He can wield the power of God the Father because of His fundamental part in God’s plan to make everything right – Jesus died so that everyone can live.

The Church is often called the “Bride of Christ” because of what it says in Revelation 19:6-9:

Then I heard what sounded like a great multitude, like to roar of rushing waters and like loud peals of thunder, shouting:

“Hallelujah! For our Lord God Almighty reigns. Let us rejoice and be glad and give him glory! For the wedding of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready. Fine linen, bright and clean, was given her to wear.”

(Fine linen stands for the righteous acts of the saints.)

Then the angel said to me, “Write: ‘Blessed are those who are invited to the wedding supper of the Lamb! [Jesus]’ ” And he added, “these are the true words of God”

You see, the Church is going to get married to Jesus. The white clothes represent God’s righteousness being given to us, which make us worthy of being united with Jesus like this.

And Jesus has brought this about – how?

I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and makes war. His eyes are like blazing fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has a name written on him that no-one but he himself knows. He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God. The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean… On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written:

                KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS

(Revelation 19:1-16)

Our God has gone to war to win us. Here we see Jesus riding into battle in a robe dipped in His own blood, symbolising what He did when He died on the cross. Jesus has won us the victory by shedding His own blood in self-giving love.

So, is it worth spending eternity with Jesus? He has the ultimate authority, He is stunningly beautiful, He has given up His own life so that we can have something better than all the good things we’ll ever know. And, most of all, He gives us Himself to be united to and to know intimately for the rest of time and beyond!

What do you think?

Many thanks to Lewis Green for his talks on 1 Corinthians 12-14, and to Mike Reeves for his talk on Jesus in Revelation, both at Relay 3 2012.

As part of my year as a church intern, I wrote quite a lot of short Bible talks. And, being female, this meant that the whole issue of whether women should be allowed to preach has been something that I’ve been quite conscious of recently. Personally, I know that I need to do some intense study – in a perfect world, I’d learn New Testament (NT) Greek and be able to brilliantly translate what they meant back then to what it means in a form of English that we can understand with crystal clarity now. But, sadly, I don’t have the means to do this at the moment. And my opinion tends to change as to what I think exactly. Currently, (based on talking to my vicar and hearing his reasoning) I think that it’s ok for women to preach, because the sense used in the ‘key’ passages in the NT is about usurping authority; and women preaching doesn’t necessarily usurp authority – unless, of course, they start inciting a coup/mutiny/rebellion and take the church as their own then and there. But in my experience, this isn’t what usually happens.

I’d love to put up some of my intern sermons up on here, so to warn you: if you don’t agree with women preaching, feel free to not read them 🙂

But here’s what I understand about the arguments at the moment:

From what I can tell, pretty much everyone agrees on a certain set of values, and the difference of opinion is on what exactly is meant by the text when it says certain things. The Bible verse that i have been particularly aware of as being involved in this issue is:

A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not the one who was deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner. But women will be kept safe through childbirth, if they continue in faith, love and holiness with propriety. (1 Timothy 2:11-15)

(I know there’s a lot to talk about from this passage, but you’ll have to wait till later :P)

The really important thing to remember is that this is not about men being better than women, or women better than men. It is not a ‘battle of the sexes’ issue; it is not a male supremacy issue. More often than not, it’s an issue with our messy, sinful hearts. It’s easy to judge others for their point of view and think that yours is better. Obviously, you do think it’s better, otherwise you wouldn’t have that opinion. But talking about issues such as this one where things can get heated so easily means that we need humility and wisdom. We need to be prepared to actually listen to other opinions, but more importantly, to listen to what God says even if we don’t like it (we need to have the desire to honestly seek what God wants). My view could well be wrong, and this is a challenge to myself as well to be humble and willing to hold my opinion loosely.

I haven’t been able to study this too much as of yet, but here’s the basics of my understanding:

What people agree on:

Men and women are equal. Both are made to reflect who God is, to look after creation together and be relational beings. But also, both are equally guilty of sin and equally accountable for the Fall (so Eve let herself be lied to gave in to the temptation to eat the forbidden fruit, but Adam was right next to her the whole time and could have stopped her). However, both are equal in salvation – i.e. God saves men and women equally, and brings them both into a status of children of God and heirs of His Kingdom. So men and women are equal in value and status.

Men and women are not the same. God made a deliberate difference when He created man and woman back in Genesis. He made men and women to complement each other in the work that He gave them to do (look after creation).

God uses both men and women in work, whether Christian work or not.

Jesus involved women in ministry. He treated women equally to men, with value and respect.

Man is the head of woman. – I can hear you say, ‘Hang on there!’ The above points are fairly easy to go along with because they’re quite nice and non-controversial. OK, so this is not something that always seems natural, especially in our Western culture. But I think this is definitely a biblical view (especially because the Bible says it explicitly, so…). Let’s unpack this…

Normally, the first place people start is back in Genesis. But I think it might be more helpful to go back further than the beginning of the universe – to God Himself. You see, there is some form of hierarchy within God Himself, in the Trinity. And this isn’t about superiority or inferiority at all – all three Persons of the Trinity are completely God and so have utterly the same status as God (if you want to know more about the Trinity… er… you’ll have to look elsewhere for the moment, sorry. I’ve just started what promises to be a great book on the Trinity – The Good God by Mike Reeves – and it’s definitely something that’s worth delving into. Because, like, you know, it’s about who God is. You can’t get more important than that). There is a pattern of submission in the Trinity. 1 Corinthians 11:3 says that God (the Father) is the head of Christ (the Son) – they’re both equal, but the Son submits to the Father. There are other verses about this; John 5:19 (the Son only does what the Father does) and John 14:31 (the Son does exactly what the Father tells him to) are a couple of examples. I hope you can see what I’m getting at: the whole submission issue and the order that God has given is not an issue of superiority/inferiority, because it never was since it exists in who God is.

On to creation. God created man (Adam) first and gave him the first command before He made woman (Eve) (see Genesis 2). Adam’s responsibility was to pass this command on to his wife. Adam was given the responsibility of naming things, even the woman, and in the Bible, naming things is an act of authority. In Genesis 3, when Eve listens to the serpent instead of Adam (i.e. not obeying the command from God via Adam to not eat from the tree), and Adam does nothing, he is punished for a) listening to Eve, and b) failing in his responsibility as ‘custodian of the command’. This started the battle of the sexes:

“Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over you.” (Genesis 3:16b)

“desire” here is all about possessing or mastering. i.e., women would have the desire to control and rule over men, and men would want to ‘lord it’ over them. But the God-ordained way of things is for men to be in authority. You can see the problem. Sin messes things up. It turned something that was always intended to be a wholesome and beautiful reflection of who God is into a twisted battle for power.

But God didn’t leave it there. When Jesus Christ saved us through dying in our place, He didn’t just restore our relationship with God. His continuing work in us is to restore the other relationships we have, including the order that God set out right at the beginning of existence. So the model we are given in the New Testament is that of Christ:

Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus:

Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance like a man, he humbled himself and became obedient to death – even death on a cross! Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. (Philippians 2:6-11)

Christ’s example is that although He is equal with the Father, He didn’t grasp at that equality. He submits willingly to the Father. Another helpful mode we have is that of Christ and His Church:

Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Saviour. Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything.

Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her to make her holy, cleansing her by the washing with water through the word, and to present her to himself as a radiant church, without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish, but holy and blameless. In this same way, husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. (Ephesians 5:22-28)

This is mainly about marriage, but I hope you can see that from this we can draw that our relationships are, in the appropriate extent, to reflect Christ’s relationship to the Church. Particularly, it’s important to remember what v25 says about husbands loving wives as Christ loves His Church – sacrificially, selflessly. But also, we can draw out that authority does not mean that you are dominating, and submission does not mean that you are a doormat to be walked all over.

What people disagree on:

How this works out in a church context, where everyone is not married to each other (thankfully – can you imagine how complicated that would get?).

There’s a decent amount of clear teaching (such as the passage above) about marriage and roles within that. It gets trickier when talking about male and female roles in church. A fair amount of detailed understanding comes from reading between the lines a bit – study of whether male or female words are used, the sense of the whole text, etc. Passages such as the 1 Timothy 2 one that I mentioned at the beginning of this post raise questions like: Can women have any authority in church? Can they preach to men, or only to women? What happens with children – can they preach to them, and when does a child become a man and hence can’t be taught spiritually by women? What counts as teaching? Does leading sung worship count? Or leading prayers? Or leading a service? Can women write books about Christian discipleship or theology?

To a certain extent, we won’t know for sure until we get to heaven, can see things clearly, and all go “Oooooohhh, so THAT’s what it meant!” I’m not saying that we can’t understand what the Bible says – not at all! But a combination of not being 1st Century Greek-speakers, our sinful hearts, and our ability to get things wrong mean that there is a difference of opinion on some things that are contentious.

My opinion

Let’s have a look at that 1 Timothy passage again:

A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not the one who was deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner. But women will be kept safe through childbirth, if they continue in faith, love and holiness with propriety. (1 Timothy 2:11-15)

So, the last sentence is a curveball. A lot of commentators have seen it and gone ‘??’ and don’t really have an answer for what Paul is getting at exactly. But that’s not quite what we’re looking for here, so I’ll very annnoyingly brush over it.

When it says “silent” in v11, this isn’t the best translation of the word used. The word used is the same as used to describe “peaceful and quiet” in v2 (in relation to how we should live – “…that we may live peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness.”) – it’s about an attitude of listening instead of resisting authority, not women not being allowed to make a noise. When the passage above says “I do not permit a woman to teach” we need to be careful, because in other places Paul talks about women teaching in a positive way, such as Titus 2 where he encourages women to teach younger women, or when he talks about Timothy being taught by his mother and grandmother. And there’s the instance when a couple, Priscilla and Aquila, taught Apollos together. Paul isn’t saying that women can’t teach… so what does he mean? In v12, teaching goes hand-in-hand with authority. Much of 1 Timothy is talking about people who are appointed to have authority to lead the church and teach it; so Paul is prohibiting women from having overall authority in a church, i.e. being elders/vicars/pastors. It doesn’t mean that women can’t teach or preach, just that they shouldn’t take on the role of being in charge of the church.

This reasoning is followed in v13-14. Adam was formed before Eve. Being made first doesn’t mean that Adam was better or more important, but that Adam was to be followed. God made man to be the leader. Sin and the Fall messed this up.

So, my personal opinion (willing to change) is this: women can preach (so long as they are under the authority of a man, e.g. church leader/vicar/pastor/elder and this doesn’t upset the authority structure that God has set out), but overall authority is a role that God intended for men. However, this doesn’t mean that authority should ever be exploited – we are to follow Jesus’ example, whatever position we are in, whoever we are, and serve each other selflessly.

I hope my ramblings have been helpful 🙂

Thanks to Hilary Jackson and Fiona at MMTC for their instruction, and Henry Curran for his thoughts – both of which I have used heavily here.

Edit: I’d also recommend reading this article (and others in the series):

http://thegospelcoalition.org/blogs/thabitianyabwile/2011/01/06/im-a-complementarian-but-women-must-be-taught-and-they-must-teach/

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